Youth Programs (JP) 1959-1972 and Working Holiday Scheme 1979-
When departure figures of Dutch emigrants to Australia dropped at the end of the 1950s the Dutch government started to consider a temporary stay abroad as an instrument to help shape the then emigration policy. This is much earlier than is commonly assumed. The temporary migration through so-called Youth Programs was developed from the end of the 1950s and ran until about 1972. Between 1979 and 1992, the Dutch and Australian governments would provide a Youth Exchange Program under the name Working Holiday Scheme. The ultimate intention was to stimulate more permanent migration through this temporary migration. One of the means to accomplish permanent settlement was with the Australian Second Assistance Scheme (SAS). Till today the Working Holiday Scheme and other sort of temporary visa, such as the Temporary Work (Skilled) visa 457 are used by Australia as pathways to permanent residency. The Dutch government also still operates its Working Holiday Scheme for young Australian citizens.